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What is Information Hiding?

This page contains the simple explanation of Information Hiding, Why Information Hiding is required, And Its advantages and How to implement it.

What is information hiding

Information Hiding is the practice of hiding the details of a module with the goal of controlling access to the details from the rest of the system.

What is module

  • Most of the design methods are based on decomposing a problem-solution into modules. 
  • Module mean a cohesive system subunit that performs a share of the work.  

Advantages of Module

  • In Java, the primary module mechanism is the class. Decomposing a system into modules helps us manage complexity. 
  • Additionally, the modules can form the basis of assignments for different programming teams working separately on a large system. 
  • Modules act as an abstraction tool. The complexity of their internal structure can be hidden from the rest of the system.  
  • This means that the details involved in implementing a module are isolated from the details of the rest of the system. 

Why is hiding the details or information desirable?

Because of following advantages of using Information Hiding, It is very much desirable:

  • Information hiding helps manage the complexity of a system since a programmer can concentrate on one module at a time.
  • As the different modules of program are interrelated & work together to solve the problem, Modules provide services to each other through a carefully defined interface.
  • The interface in Java is usually provided by the public methods of a class. Programmers of one module do not need to know the internal details of the modules it interacts with, but they do need to know the interfaces. 
  • For example,  Consider a driving analogy, you can start a car without knowing how many cylinders are in the engine. You do not need to know these lower-level details of the cars power subsystem in order to start it. You just have to understand the interface; that is, you only need to know how to turn the key.
  • Similarly, you do not have to know the details of other modules as you design a specific module. Such a requirement would introduce a greater risk of confusion and error throughout the whole system. 

Advantages of Information Hiding

  • Information Hiding helps to manage the complexity of a large system, As well as  support our quality goals of modifiability and reusability. 
  • In a well designed system, most modifications can be localized to just a few modules. Such changes are much easier to make than changes that permeate the entire system. 
  • A good system design results in the creation of generic modules that can be used in other systems. 


  • To achieve these goals of Modifiability and Reusability, modules should be good abstractions with strong cohesion; that is, each module should have a single purpose or identity and the module should stick together well. 
  • A cohesive module can usually be described by a simple sentence. If you have to use several sentences or one very convoluted sentence to describe your module, it is probably not cohesive. 
  • Each module should also exhibit information hiding so that changes within it do not result in changes in the modules that use it. 
  • This independent quality of modules is known as loose coupling.  If your module depends on the internal details of other modules, it is not loosely coupled.

You would also like to read:

What is Stepwise Refinement?
What is Abstraction?

Comments :

hei u need to mention with practical explaination for a experianced candidate by taking one project or any scenario. Otherwise how it is real time,who is asking the questions to u,those guys all of them knows about abstraction and all those concepts but they dont know hw the real time behavior of OOPS Concepts.So plese clear it in that way..

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